T2 inflammation biomarkers and cytokines

T2 inflammation is characterized by elevations in:

- absolute peripheral or sputum eosinophil counts
- levels of IgE (total and allergen-specific)
- fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO)

The 3 above serve as biomarkers of T2 inflammation.

T2 inflammation is mediated by key cytokines:

- IL-4
- IL-5
- IL-13
- thymic stromal lymphopoietin
- IL-25
- IL-33

IL-4 and IL-13 utilize Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways.

There are biologic therapies targeting these T2 cytokines, reviewed in the article below:

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