Living on a farm and parental allergen sensitization reflected in utero at gene expression level

Environmental factors, including the intrauterine environment, can influence the risk of allergy development.

mRNA expression of 17 genes was determined by PCR in term placenta of 36 families participating in the ALADDIN study (Assessment of Lifestyle and Allergic Disease During Infancy).

CD14 was expressed at higher levels in fetal side of placentas from families living on a farm compared to not living on a farm.

At the maternal side of the placenta, higher expression of STAT4 and lower expression of GATA3 were detected in families with sensitized compared to nonsensitized mothers. IL-12 was lower expressed when the families were living on a farm compared to not living on a farm.

Living on a farm and parental allergen sensitization are reflected in the intrauterine environment at the gene expression level.

Children living on a farm are at reduced risk of asthma (OR 0.68), hay fever (OR, 0.43), atopic dermatitis (OR, 0.80), and atopic sensitization (OR, 0.54) http://goo.gl/qVY2G

CD14 is a component of the innate immune system and exists in 2 forms:

- anchored into the membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor) tail (mCD14)
- soluble form (sCD14)

Our innate immune system recognizes LPS via the LPS signal transduction pathway, which has the trimolecular complex of CD14/TLR4/MD2 at the core. CD14 was the first described pattern recognition receptor (PAMP receptor).

TLR4 (for LPS)
CD14


In the initial stages of an immune response, the innate immune system recognizes the presence of pathogens and provides the first line of defense. This video is from: Janeway's Immunobiology, 7th Edition Murphy, Travers, & Walport. Source: Garland Science.

References:

Joerink M, Oortveld MAW, Stenius F, Rindsjö E, Alm J, Scheynius A. Lifestyle and parental allergen sensitization are reflected in the intrauterine environment at gene expression level. Allergy 2010; DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02328.x.
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123276059/abstract
Children living on farms exposed to a wider range of microbes leading to lower asthma risk. NEJM, 2011.
Protective role of contact with livestock and farming lifestyle on asthma, in particular during childhood. ERJ January 1, 2012 vol. 39 no. 1 67-75.
Image source: OpenClipArt.org, public domain.

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