3 phenotypes were identified (one mild and two severe phenotypes):
- mild phenotype, 17%, with occasional mild wheeze
- two severe phenotypes separated by atopic status:
1. atopic severe phenotype, 3%, with a high prevalence of atopy (61% with allergenic sensitization) and atopic dermatitis (78%)
2. nonatopic severe phenotype, 11%. This group included 88% of the children with recurrent wheezing.
Risk factors for respiratory disease included:
- parental history of asthma
- male sex
- day care attendance
- exposure to tobacco smoke or molds
- indoor renovations
- being overweight
Modified Asthma Predictive Index (mAPI) (click to enlarge the image):
Risk factors and characteristics of respiratory and allergic phenotypes in early childhood. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Volume 130, Issue 2 , Pages 389-396.e4, August 2012.