What are the risk factors and protective factors for allergic rhinitis at age 4?

Allergic heredity plays a significant role in the development of allergic rhinitis. The introduction of solid foods may also influence the risk of allergic disease.



Allergic (atopic) march (click here to enlarge the image).

This Swedish study analysed early risk factors and protective factors for allergic rhinitis at preschool age (4 years) via questionnaires.

At 4½ yr of age, 5.5% of children had reported symptoms of allergic rhinitis.

Risk factors for allergic rhinitis were:

- allergic sensitisation to food allergens at 4½ yr (OR 10.21)
- recurrent wheeze at 4½ yr (3.33)
- doctor-diagnosed eczema at 4½ yr (2.72)
- parental rhinitis (2.21)
- eczema first year (1.97)
- male gender (1.82)

The risk was reduced with fish introduction before 9 months of age (0.49).

References:

Alm B, Goksör E, Thengilsdottir H, Pettersson R, Möllborg P, Norvenius G, Erdes L, Åberg N, Wennergren G. Early protective and risk factors for allergic rhinitis at age 4½ yr. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2011: Doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2011.01153.x

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