- systemic biomarkers
- lung biomarkers
Assessment of lung biomarkers may be useful in airway inflammatory diseases:
- nitric oxide and inflammatory indicators in exhaled breath condensate such as oxidative stress markers (eg, hydrogen peroxide and isoprostanes)
- nitric oxide derivatives (eg, nitrates)
- arachidonic acid metabolites (eg, prostanoids, leukotrienes, and epoxides)
Exhaled breath temperature measurement and devices of the “electronic nose” type have been explored.
Exhaled breath temperature measurement and other techniques could create "molecular fingerprints" or "breath prints".