Allergic rhinitis is the most prevalent type I allergy in industrialized countries. Pollen scattering from trees or grasses often induces seasonal allergic rhinitis, which is also known as pollinosis or hay fever.
Impaired performance due to pollinosis and/or medication used for treating pollinosis is considered to be an important reason for the loss of concentration and productivity in the workplace.
Antigen-specific immunotherapy is an only available curative treatment against allergic rhinitis. Subcutaneous injection of allergens (SCIT) with or without adjuvant has been commonly used as an immunotherapy. Recently, sublingual administration (SLIT) has come to be considered a safe and convenient alternative administration route of allergens.
The biomarkers and therapeutic mechanisms for immunotherapy are not fully understood. Tr1 and regulatory T cells are likely involved in the therapeutic mechanisms underlying SCIT and SLIT.
This review also focuses on the current immunotherapeutic approach to treating Japanese cedar pollinosis, the most prevalent pollinosis in Japan, including:
- sublingual immunotherapy with standardized extract
- a transgenic rice-based edible vaccine
- an immunoregulatory liposome encapsulating recombinant fusion protein
Antigen-Specific Immunotherapy against Allergic Rhinitis: The State of the Art. Fujimura T, Okamoto Y. Allergol Int. 2010 Feb 25;59(1). [Epub ahead of print]
How to Write a Subcutaneous Immunotherapy (SCIT) Prescription for Allergic Rhinitis
Anaphylactic Reaction to Subcutaneous Immunotherapy in a Patient with Asthma: How Do You Change the Dose?
Image source: OpenClipArt.org, public domain.
Treatment Options for Allergic Rhinitis (click to enlarge the image).