Update on chronic urticaria

Mast cells are the key cells in chronic urticaria. Basophils are "bystanders."

Factors that contribute to the course and activity of chronic urticaria:
- coagulation cascade
- hormonal factors
- psychological status

Urticaria appearing on right arm. Image source: Wikipedia, public domain.

Second-generation antihistamines (at high doses) are the first-line treatment for chronic urticaria.

Update on chronic urticaria: focusing on mechanisms. Skin allergy. Mlynek, Agnieszka; Maurer, Marcus; Zalewska, Anna. Current Opinion in Allergy & Clinical Immunology. 8(5):433-437, October 2008.
Urticaria. Allergy Cases.

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