Allergic rhinitis (AR) may be caused by local nasal IgE sensitization to aeroallergens in the absence of systemic evidence of IgE sensitization.
Allergic rhinitis impairs school performance and is a risk factor for future asthma.
New treatments for allergic rhinitis include:
- beta-1,3-glucan, a mushroom product that induces T(H)1 response
- olopatadine nasal spray
T helper (Th) 2 cells play an important role in the development of IgE-mediated diseases such as AR, leading to local overproduction of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13). On the contrary, Th1 cytokines (IL-12 and IFN-gamma) are known to suppress this Th2 immune response. Beta-1,3-1,6-glucan (Glucan) is an immunomodulator stimulating particularly the Th1-mediated immune response.
Orally-administered yeast-glucan decreases levels of IL-4 and IL-5 while increasing the levels of IL-12. Glucan may have a role as an adjunct to standard treatment in patients with AR.
Allergic rhinitis mind map.
Sublingual immunotherapy induces similar immunologic alterations as subcutaneous immunotherapy, although to a lesser degree.
The combination of omalizumab with allergen subcutaneous immunotherapy can enhance clinical efficacy.
Advances in upper airway diseases and allergen immunotherapy in 2007. Saltoun C, Avila PC. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Aug 9.
Effects of glucan treatment on the Th1/Th2 balance in patients with allergic rhinitis: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Eur Cytokine Netw. 2005 Jun;16(2):128-34.
Allergic Rhinitis: A Short Review
Mind Maps: Allergic Rhinitis
Mnemonics: Allergic Rhinitis